STEUBEN, Friedrich Wilhelm Ludolf Gerhard Augustin, Baron von (1730-94)
, Prussian-American general of the American revolutionary army, born in Magdeburg, Prussia (now Germany). He fought with distinction in the Seven Years' War (1756-63) and arrived
at Portsmouth, N.H., in 1778, offering his services to Congress and to the Continental army and its commander, George Washington. He was appointed inspector general, prepared a manual of tactics for the army,
remodeled its organization, organized an efficient staff, and improved its discipline. In 1780 he sat on the court-martial of the British army officer Maj. John André, who was charged with espionage. In the same year
he took part, as a major general, in the siege of Yorktown. After the war he received grants of land from several states, and finally Congress voted him a pension of $2400. He became an American citizen in 1783.