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PULITZER, Joseph (1847-1911)

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PULITZER, Joseph (1847-1911), German-American, journalist, born in Makˇ, Hungary. Pulitzer immigrated to the U.S. in 1864 and served in the First New York Cavalry during the American Civil War. He became an American citizen in 1867, a reporter on a German daily, the Westliche Post, in Saint Louis, Mo., the same year, and managing editor and part owner of the newspaper in 1871. Two years later he left the paper. After receiving a law degree and working as a correspondent for the New York Sun, in 1878 he bought the St. Louis Evening Dispatch and Evening Post, combining them into the Post-Dispatch. In 1883 he acquired the New York World. Under his management, it became a major paper, famous for sensationalism, exposÚs, careful and extensive reportage, crusades against corruption, and a strong pro-labor stance. In 1887 he broke down from overwork, but although invalid, blind, and often absent, he continued his supervision. In 1903 he provided for the Pulitzer Prizes in literature and journalism and donated $1 million to Columbia University for the founding of a school of journalism.

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