KÖHLER, Wolfgang (1887-1967), German-American psychologist, born in Tallinn, Estonia, and educated at the University of Berlin. He was a founder of Gestalt PSYCHOLOGY (q.v.) . As director of a
research center on the Canary Islands, Köhler experimented with perception and learning in apes. He later returned to Berlin as director of the Psychology Institute. After immigrating to the U.S. in 1934, he became
professor of psychology at Swarthmore College and later at Dartmouth College. Among his best-known books are The Mentality of Apes (1925), Gestalt Psychology (1929), and Dynamics in Psychology(1940).