FRANCK, James (1882-1964), German-American physicist, chemist, and Nobel laureate, born in Hamburg, and educated at the universities of Heidelberg and Berlin. He was professor of physics at several
universities in Germany and the U.S. In collaboration with the German physicist Gustav Hertz, Franck conducted notable experiments on the effects produced by bombarding atoms with electrons. For that research, which
provided experimental verification of the quantum theory, he shared the 1925 Nobel Prize in physics with Hertz. Franck is also noted for his important contributions to the study of photosynthesis.