Sutter: The Expansion of his Ranch
In 1839, he brought to his ranch about 500 head of cattle, 50 horses, and 25 mares. In the autumn of 1840, he
added 1,000 head more to his herd, together with as many horses. In the fall of 1840, he built an adobe house, where the fort now stands. During this same year, the Indians again were troublesome, killing cattle and
stealing and driving off horses. On such occasions he fired his cannons to frighten them.
In later years an Indian chief told him that if it had not been for his cannon, his tribe would have scalped every
man in his colony and plundered the settlement.
Sutter receives Mexican Citizenship and the Rights to his Land "New Helvetia"